This standard specifies the non pollution production in peach garden selection and planning, planting, soil, fertilizer and water management, pruning, flower and fruit management, plant diseases and insect pest control and harvesting technology.
2, garden selection and planning
2.1. garden selection
Base soil texture is good, pH value of 4.5 ~ 7.5, effective soil 80cm above, underground water level in the following 1.0m. The soil, water and air quality in line with the NY5013-2006 base of pollution-free food fruit products environmental conditions.
2.2 garden planning
Garden planning includes: zoning, roads and irrigation system setting, shelterbelt construction, grading and packaging workshop construction etc..
The ground slopes and slopes below 6 degrees, planting behavior from north to south. Slope at 6 degrees to 20 degrees in the mountains, hills, planting rows along the contour line extension.
2.3 variety selection and stock selection
2.3.1 variety selection
Excellent varieties as follows: Beijing as early as beauty, spectinomycin,, Long Feng Wang, Dahongpao, South Korea crystal, long big treasure, peach, gang early, Kim Dong giant nectarine, Shuguang nectarine and is determined according to the type of climate and variety, maturity, quality, resistance to during storage and transportation, stress resistance and market, transportation, consumption, social and economic factors. The ratio of main cultivars and pollination varieties was generally 8 to 1.
2.3.2 stock selection: Peach Rootstocks mainly with peach or peach.
3.1 seedling quality
Basic quality requirements of seedlings
3.2 Planting Period
After defoliation in autumn and the following spring peach tree before bud can be planted in autumn planting is appropriate; if serious damage, choosing the spring planting.
3.3 planting density
The planting density should be determined according to the garden site conditions (including climate, soil and terrain), varieties, trimming and management level, the general spacing of 3M * 5m, Mu planted 56.
3.4 planting method
The planting hole size should be 80cm * 80cm * 80cm, in the barren sand land can be increased properly. Organic fertilizer or fertilizer in the planting hole planting should be in accordance with 4.2.2 fertilizer.
Before planting, the root of seedlings with 1% copper sulfate solution soaked in 5min and then put into the 2% lime solution for disinfection of 2min. Planting the seedlings to root stretch, righting seedlings, edge filling edge gently to put on the seedlings, practical, so that the root and soil Tightlock fully; planting depth to the root of the neck and the ground level is appropriate; after planting, irrigating immediately.
4, soil and fertilizer management
4.1 soil management
4.1.1 Shen fan soil every autumn after harvest with base fertilizer in autumn soil Shen fan. The depth of the expansion point is in the field of planting hole (groove) to dig the circular ditch or parallel groove, groove width 50cm, deep 30cm ~ 45cm. Full depth of the garden should be planted deep in the soil, the depth of 30cm ~ 40cm. When the soil is filled with organic fertilizer, and then full irrigation.
The orchard growing season rainfall or irrigation, timely Ripper; cultivating depth of 5cm ~ 10cm.
4.1.3 covered with grass and grass
Cover material can use wheat straw, wheat bran, corn straw, hay, etc.. The cover is covered under the canopy, the thickness of 10cm ~ 15cm, a small amount of soil pressure above.
4.1.4 planting green manure and interplanting grass
The grass was advocated in taoyuan. Planting of crops and peach tree without common diseases and insect pests of shallow roots, short rod plant, with appropriate legume and Gramineae, cutting at the right moment turn buried in soil or covered in Shupan.
The application of the fertilizer does not have a bad effect on the environment of the orchard and the quality of the fruit, which should be registered or exempted from the registration by the administrative department of agriculture. To promote the formula fertilization and balanced fertilization according to the nutrition analysis of soil and leaf.
4.2.2 allows the use of fertilizer types.
18.104.22.168 organic fertilizer
Including composting, compost, manure, biogas fertilizer, green manure and crop straw fertilizer, river filth, cake and other farm fertilizer and commodity organic fertilizer and compound organic fertilizer and so on.
Including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other elements of a large number of elements, such as fertilizer and trace element fertilizers and compound fertilizers, etc..
22.214.171.124 microbial fertilizer
Including microbial agents and fertilizer treated by microorganisms.
4.3. should be noted in the use of fertilizers
Prohibit the use of without the harmless treatment of urban garbage or containing heavy metals, rubber and harmful substances in the garbage; control the use of containing chloride fertilizer and chlorine containing compound fertilizer.
4.4 methods and quantities of fertilizer application
In autumn, after harvest, the harvest of fruits is mainly based on the farm manure, with a small amount of fertilizer. According to the application of 1.5kg fertilizer 1kg ~ 2.0kg high quality peach farm manure calculation. Application method in furrow, fertilization site in the crown projection range. The fertilization method is to dig the radial ditch, the circular ditch or the parallel ditch, the ditch depth 30cm ~ 45cm, in order to achieve the main root distribution layer is suitable.
Topdressing frequency, time and amount vary according to the varieties, tree age, ways of cultivation and management, growth developmental stage and environmental conditions etc.. Each line dressing n 0.3-0.5 Jin, Jin, Jin 0.3-0.5 potassium phosphate 2-3. The young trees and the trees with fruit development, topdressing nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer; fruit development period with phosphorus potassium fertilizer. According to the application of high temperature and drought period should limit the scope of use from the fruits were harvested within 20 days of stopping foliar fertilizer.
4.5 water management
Requires no pollution of irrigation water, water quality should comply with the provisions of NY5113. Germination period, fruit expansion period and after defoliation before frozen irrigation should be timely.
4.5.2 drainage system, drainage system in the rainy season through timely drainage.
5, plastic trim
5.1 peach tree is a natural form of happiness
Stem height 40cm ~ 50cm, choose to stay three main branch, in the trunk patchwork distribution; the main branch angle at 40 DEG to 70 DEG; each branch configuration 2 ~ 3 branches was along to the arrangement of branches opened angle of 70 degrees around.
5.2 trim points
The initial 5.2.1 and the sapling stage
The growth of young trees vigorous, should pay attention to summer pruning. Mainly in shaping the main, as soon as possible to expand the crown, to cultivate a solid skeleton; to the backbone branches, the extension of the branch appropriate short cut, the non key branches of the light cut long, early results, and gradually develop all kinds of results branch.
5.2.2 Sheng Guo
The main task is to keep balance tree pre pruning, cultivate various types of fruit set. In the late period of suppression before the promotion, retraction updates, training of new branch group, and the position outside to prevent premature aging. Results the branches should be updated continuously. Should pay attention to summer pruning.
6 management of fruits
According to the variety characteristics and fruit ripening by pruning, thinning and other measures to adjust the output, the general per 667m2 at 1250kg ~ 2500kg.
6.1.2 in the bud thinning period; fruit thinning from petals after two weeks before the period of hard core.
After the specific steps in the first after the first; fruit thinning thinning small fruit, fruit, malformed fruit, plant diseases and insect pests of fruit in the first place; the second is overturned the fruit fruit, leaf and fruit branches. Keep the position of branches on both sides, downward growth of fruit is good. Long branch for 3 ~ 4, fruit retention 2 to 3, a short branch, boundray branch left one or leave.
6.2 fruit bagging
6.2.1 bagging time and methods
In a timely manner after the set of bags. Before bagging to spray a fungicide and insecticide. Bagging first after early maturing, low fruit setting rate varieties can be set to reduce the rate of late, the empty bag.
6.2.2 solution bag
Solution bag general in mature fruit before 10 days to 20 days; not easy to color varieties and bad illumination area may be appropriate advance solution bag; solution before the bag, single bag first opened the bottom, gradually bag removal; double-layer bag should be twice the finished solution, the solution to inner to outer layer. Fruit maturity centralized rain, severe cracking and fruit varieties can also be puzzled bag.
7, pest control
7.1 principles of prevention and control
Actively implement the "prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control of plant protection policy. On the basis of agriculture and physical control, promote biological control, in accordance with the occurrence of pests and diseases of the law and economic value, scientific use of chemical control technology, effective control of pests and diseases.
7.2 agricultural control
Reasonable pruning, keep the canopy ventilation and light transmittance good; reasonable load, keep the tree strong. Take cut off pest branches, artificial capture, clear litter, tree disc, the ground covered with straw, the mulch film and scientific fertilization measures to curb or reduce occurrence of pests and diseases.
7.3 physical control
According to the pest biological characteristics and take sweet and sour liquid, black light lamp, trunk wrapped grass, adhesive and insect nets and other method of trapping and killing pests.
7.4 biological control
Protect the ladybirds, lacewings, predatory mite predators. The beneficial microorganisms or their metabolites, such as the use of insect sex pheromone traps.
7.5 chemical control
According to the control object of the biological characteristics and damage characteristics, advocate the use of Biogenic Pesticides, mineral source pesticides (such as lime sulphur and suspended sulfur agent) to prohibit the use of highly toxic, highly toxic, high residue and teratogenic, carcinogenic, caused by mutations in the pesticide. Strictly control the dosage and safety interval of the use of chemical pesticides, and in accordance with the relevant provisions of the state.
7.5.1 peach borers borers: annual 2-3 eggs overwinter in the bark larvae into the core from the stalk borers, causing brown rot disease, affecting the quality of fruit.
Prevention methods: the eradication of overwintering eggs, spawning Mu fenitrothion 80 100ml, diluted 1000 times spray. Late ripening peach bagging can prevent diseases and pests, and can significantly improve the quality of.
7.5.2 aphids: a cluster of leaf back thorn suction damage.
Preventive measures: destroy overwintering eggs, with 3 - 5 Baume lime sulfur mixture Qing sterilized garden, in the 4 - 5 month period of damage per mu net 30-40ml bug the 22% diluted 1000 times liquid spray.
7.5.3 bacterial perforation. The main damage to the leaves, can also damage shoot.
Prevention and cure method:
A, winter shoots cut and burned on drainage and ventilation, pay attention to the orchard.
B, early onset, per mu 150-250g65% mancozeb diluted 500 times spray.
7.5.4 peach rot: and celebrities gum disease and wintering bacteria by the wind, insects, media, in the 4 - 5 in popular, from rice gummosis to tree rod BianTi gummosis, until the tree rod death. Prevention methods per acre available thiophanate methyl and 843 Rehabilitation Agent 150ml diluted 200 times Tu governance injury mouth. In the southern rainy regions must use the southern green stem peach seedling, its strong resistance.
The use of pesticides should pay attention to the safety of the interval, in the 25 days before the harvest to stop using all pesticides. To carry out "pesticide detection before harvest, pass the inspection before harvest orchard.
8, harvest, storage, transport
The fruit harvest should be in accordance with its use, and timely marketing.
For canning, hard meat raw food or marketing field should be fully grown in peach, fruit, fruit maturity hard face plump harvest. In situ fresh and processed varieties, should be fully mast in the fruit, strong flavor when harvesting. For fresh fruit, to be close to maturity harvest, processing with the best harvest in hard ripe stage.
8.2: grading and packing were graded by size, degree of color, a fruit box with pollution-free food labels for sale.
Peach fruit is not resistant to storage, usually to be treated in a timely manner, the current common cold storage method is to be hard ripe fruit is picked at the temperature of 0-5 degrees Celsius relative humidity 80-90% cold storage, can store 15-20 days.
The best cold long-distance transport tanker, sales in the first and then moved to 20-25 DEG 3-4 days after ripening can be listed. Pay attention to the transportation must not contact pollution sources.
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